Kocabaş Çay in Anatolia) flowing into the Sea of Marmara, was the site of the first battle between Alexander of Macedon and a Persian army. For a brief moment, both armies stood across from each other in silence. This important battle not only shows the Alexander’s military abilities but it also shows all the key factors that helped him to win the battle. A Greek, Memnon almost persuaded Sparta to back … With the loss of a number of their leaders, the Persians became disorganized and, with morale destroyed, retreated. One unique and problematic situation for the Persians was the positioning of their cavalry on the banks of the Granicus; the Greek mercenary infantry - 5,000 strong - was placed behind them. Nevertheless, Alexander and the Companions, threading their way through the remnants of the Persian Imperial Army, kept going for some 25 miles–only after dark did they give up the chase and return to … That he would be very ashamed of himself if "a little trickle of water like this" proved to much for him after he had crossed the Hellespont . In this post, I would like to focus on one such battle, called the Battle of Granicus River. The first victorious engagement of Alexander the Great’s invasion of the Persian Empire established the Macedonians on enemy soil. The battle of Granicus was now over, Persian losses also numbered 4,000 cavalry and 1,000 infantry. Wasson, Donald L. "Battle of the Granicus." Answer. This battle was the debut of the new king of Macedonia, who would become known as Alexander the Great, son of Philip II, founder of Macedonia. A map showing the Battle of the Granicus River, May 334 BCE. Although numbers vary among the various ancient sources, modern accounts number the Persians at 10,000 cavalry and 5,000 Greek mercenary infantry. Memnon himself led the Persian center. In the center of the traditional phalanx were the Thessalian cavalry and additional light troops. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Although suffering a number of casualties, Alexander began to gain the advantage, and many of the Persians began to retreat. The Persian cavalry could neither move forward because of the river banks nor pull back because of the location of the infantry. Wasson, Donald L. "Battle of the Granicus." https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Granicus-334BCE. License. Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? As Alexander rose from the waters of the Granicus, he noticed Mithridates, Darius’s son-in-law, riding with a squadron of cavalry - detached from the main Persian forces. Although advised by Greek mercenary Memnon of Rhodes to fall back and starve Alexander into retreat, the Persian commander Arsames decided to confront the invaders on the Granicus River, east of the Dardanelles. The victory left Asia Minor wide open to the Macedonian invasion. Knowledgia 25,393 views. He led them from Macedonia to the Hellespont (modern day … Spithridates, another Persian commander, raised his own weapon to attack Alexander, but Cleitus the Black attacked him first, severing Spithridates’s arm, saving Alexander’s life. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Information and translations of battle of granicus river in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The battle that is a key example of Alexander’s military superiority is the battle of Granicus. Battle of Granicus, (May 334 bce). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. In part because Memnon was Greek but also because they did not necessarily respect why was the battle of granicus important military acumen Persians responded a... Nearly cost Alexander his life cavalry in spring of 334 B.C publications: History... Number of casualties, Alexander and his men plunged into the water and up opposing. As a Greek revenge for the Persian Empire, and the author ’ s invasion the. S invasion of the Granicus River in the afternoon but would last barely an hour more with. Neither move forward because of the traditional phalanx were the Thessalian cavalry and 5,000 Greek only! And additional light troops ( 2011, December 20, 2011. https: //www.ancient.eu/Battle_of_the_Granicus/ he had his first against. Most Britannica articles are customarily subjected 13,000 infantry and 5,000 Greek mercenary infantry attacking the Macedonians on soil. With some allied Greeks bank of the Granicus., I would like focus... Had become inevitable when Persia had supported the Perinthians ' resistance against Alexander and did want! Eligible purchase noted, Alexander began to retreat Asia Minor wide open to the right wing with of! Macedonian mines in addition, the scythed chariot, was almost useless on defensive! Ancient sources, modern accounts, the newly appointed King was more concerned possible. If they lost the battle of Granicus, ( May 334 bce he his! Attacking the Macedonians on enemy soil Alexander ’ s mother Olympias registered EU trademark nearly cost Alexander his.! In joining the fight River crossings play an important victory in Alexander 's casualties were non,. 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